The photo illustrates examples of bauxite residue utilization options investigated at the Aluminium of Greece refinery (AoG) in collaboration with a number of institutions including National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), University of Patras, and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
"Efforts have been primarily directed for the production of high-volume building materials, i.e., aggregates, ceramics, cement, followed by higher added value applications, i.e., glass–ceramics and catalysis. The aftermath of this intense effort is didactic: currently only about 10,000 t of the Greek BR is used as a raw material for clinker cement production. Other processes although being technologically robust, have yet to prove financially viable."
Balomenos, E., Davris, P., Pontikes, Y. et al. J. Sustain. Metall. (2017) 3: 551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40831-016-0110-4